The borosilicate glass is made of borax (Na2O·2B2O3·10H2O) and hard boron calcium 2CaO·3B2O3·5H2O). The borosilicate glass containing the boron has the following characteristics:
(1) Elimination of chromatic aberration. In order to solve the chromatic aberration of the lens for optical glass, SCHOTT of Germany developed a new optical glass containing B2O3. B2O3 has the effect of improving chemical durability, suppressing devitrification tendency, and lowering melting temperature while reducing the average dispersion difference nf-nc (distance between red and blue light) of optical glass. The composition of the borosilicate glass article is as follows (mass fraction): 66.4% of SiO2, 12.3% of B2O3, 0.4% of PbO, 0.4% of ZnO, 8.0% of Na2O, and 12.0% of K2O.
(2) The coefficient of thermal expansion is small. Since the coefficient of thermal expansion is small, it can be used as glass for baking ovens, glass for physicochemical use, glass for medical use, and glass for electron tubes, and glass having a silica content of 96% has been developed.
(3) Increase the resistance. The glass after replacing a part of the SiO2 in the Na2O-SiO2 glass with a part of B2O3 can increase the electric resistance. This is because the introduction of B2O3 enhances the network structure of the (BO4) tetrahedral glass, reducing the movement of Na+ ions in the electric field.
(4) Reduce the dielectric loss factor. Soda-lime glass can raise the temperature of the glass under high-frequency irradiation. This is because in the high-frequency electric field, Na+ in the glass vibrates, and after adding B2O3, the dielectric loss coefficient of the glass can be remarkably reduced.
(5) Reduce the surface tension. The surface tension can be lowered by replacing a part of SiO2 of Na2O-SiO2 with B2O3. As an application for adding boron to reduce the surface tension, there is a glass fiber containing B2O3, which has good spinning performance.
(6) Chemical durability. In the Na2O-SiO2 glass, after the Na+ and H+ ions are replaced, a hydrolyzate (silica gel film) can be formed, and the chemical durability can be improved by replacing the SiO2 of the glass with B2O3.
(7) Phase separation. After heat-treating the Na2O-B2O3-SiO2-based glass at 500 to 700 ° C, the acid-soluble Na 2 O—B 2 O 3 glass and the acid-insoluble SiO 2 glass are separated and phase-separated. The phase separation of many glasses mainly composed of Na2O-SiO2 glass is well known, and a product of 55% or more of SiO2 in Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 glass has been used as a mother glass for producing 96% quartz glass.
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