Moss hardness is applied by scratching the pyramidal diamond needle to scratch the surface of the tested mineral. It is customary to use Mohs hardness in mineralogy or gemology.
The hardness is measured by the depth of the measured scratches in ten steps (talc): talc 1, gypsum 2, calcite 3, fluorite 4, apatite 5, feldspar (orthoclase; periclase) 6, quartz (quartz) 7, topaz 8, corundum 9, diamond 10. The hardness of the mineral being tested is determined by characterization of the standard minerals in the Mohs hardness tester. Although the measured value of this method is relatively rough, it is convenient and practical. It is commonly used to determine the hardness of natural minerals.
The hardness value is not an absolute hardness value, but a value expressed in order of hardness.
The hardness is determined by characterization at the time of application. If a mineral can burn calcite and not fluorite, its Mohs hardness is 3 to 4, and so on. Mohs hardness is only relative hardness and is relatively rough. The hardness of the hydrotalcite is 1, the diamond is 10, and the corundum is 9, but the absolute hardness measured by the microhardness tester is 4192 times that of the talc and 442 times that of the talc. Mohs hardness is easy to apply and is often used in field operations. For example, the nail hardness is about 2.5, the copper coin is 3.5-4, the steel knife is 5.5, and the glass is 6.5.
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